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Spain02: A set of gridded precipitation and temperature datasets

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Description:

Spain02 is a series of high-resolution daily precipitation and (maximum and minimum) temperature gridded datasets developed for peninsular Spain and the Balearic islands. A dense network of ~2500 quality-controlled stations (~250 for temperatures) for the period 1950-2007 was selected from the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) in order to build the gridded products for the different versions. Note that daily precipitation records (and the resulting gridded values) for any given day n correspond to the precipitation registered between between 0700UTC of day n and 0700UTC of day n+1.

The latest version (Spain02 v5) provides daily data for both temperature and precipitation from 1951 to 2015 in a 0.1º (~10km) regular grid (details on the specific interpolation methodologies are available at Herrera et al. 2016). Note that there is also a EURO-CORDEX compliant 0.11º rotated grid for the purpose of comparison with regional climate model results (see Kotlarsky et al. 2017).

The full Spain02 v5 dataset is freely distributed (in NetCDF format) for research purposes (read the following document for the complete copyright information) from the Escenarios-PNACC dataset from the UC climate data service (registration details here). A direct link to the regular 0.1º areal-representative version is also available here [1.3 GB] (also available at the AEMET climate services portal).
The publications, works or studies of any kind using this data set should cite P1 and P2 (see below) and include the following acknowledgments: "The authors thank AEMET and UC for the data provided for this work (Spain02 v5 dataset, available at http://www.meteo.unican.es/datasets/spain02)".


spain02_grids.png
(a)-(c) Orography obtained averaging the global digital elevation model GTOPO30 at the different resolutions (in columns). (d)-(i) Effective altitude of the grid points, obtained as the weighted mean (according to temporal coverage) of the corresponding gauges elevation for (d)-(f) mean temperature and (g)-(i) precipitation.

Versions and main features:

VERSION v5 (regular 0.1º and rotated 0.11º) (1-Aug-2017)
Both point- and areal-representative interpolation methodologies. Additional resolutions (0.22º/0.44º and 0.2º/0.4º are also available). Reference: Herrera et al. 2016 and Kotlarsky et al. 2017. The latter includes an inter comparison with other gridded products.
Precipitation: 1951 to 2015.
Temperatures: 1951 to 2015.

VERSION v4 (rotated 0.11º) (1-may-2014)
Both point- and areal-representative interpolation methodologies. Additional resolutions (0.22º and 0.44º are also available). Reference: Herrera et al. 2016.
Precipitation: 1971 to 2010.
Temperatures: 1971 to 2010.

VERSION v3 (regular 0.2º): (sep-2012)
A special precipitation dataset for trend analysis and downscaling studies was included.
Precipitation: 1950 to 31-Mar-2008. This version is no longer maintained.

VERSION v2.1 (regular 0.2º): (mar-2012). Reference: Herrera et al. 2012.
Temperatures: Corrected anomalous high values in maximum temperatures: Sep 1964 and Jun 1997.
Precipitation: Corrected a problem with the "txt" file (the definition of the lon-lat grid was shifted).
VERSION v2 (regular 0.2º): (nov-2010). Point representative. Reference: Herrera et al. 2012.
Precipitation: 1950 to 31-Mar-2008.
Temperatures: 1950 to 31-Mar-2008.

VERSION v1 (regular 0.2º): (oct-2009). Point representative.
Precipitation: 1950 to 2003
Temperatures: Not included.

Data access (previous versions):

Spain02 v2 products are freely distributed for research purposes at the AEMET climate services portal (read the following document for the complete copyright information). The data is available in NetCDF and text formats. Spain02 v2.1 is also part of the scenarios PNACC-2012 national program for regional climate change scenarios. Spain02 v2 can be completed with the PT02 dataset (distributed at request by Instituto de Meteorologia, IP, Portugal) to obtain a precipitation dataset covering the Iberian Peninsula (IP02).
The publications, works or studies of any kind using this data set should cite P1 (see above) and include the following acknowledgments: "The authors thank AEMET and UC for the data provided for this work (Spain02 dataset, http://www.meteo.unican.es/datasets/spain02)".

References:

Illustrative analysis of extremes for Spain02 v2:

As shown in the reference paper, Spain02 is an appropriate dataset for analyzing extreme events. The study of some extreme value indicators shows the capability of the Spain02 grid to reproduce the intensity and spatial variability of the typical observed extreme indices. Particular severe precipitation events (ephemerides) are also analyzed in the manuscript. The daily precipitation maximum that took place on November 3-4th 1987 in the Mediterranean coast due to a cut off low situation is studied in detail. It is observed that Spain02 captures the spatial an temporal evolution of this event. Here we include figures of some other ephemerides not shown in the manuscript, together with a synoptic description of the corresponding meteorological situation.

7th November 1982 description: Strong rainfall over the Ebro river basin gave rise to floods in Lerida and Huesca areas. This episode was due to a cut off low situation from the Atlantic ocean associated with high-level cold air mass. In addition, very warm and moist air was located over the Mediterranean sea. The strong temperature and moisture gradient triggered northward advection of warm and humid air from the Mediteranean. The effect of the Iberian orography, in particular the Pyrenees blocking, gave rise to heavy and continuous rain lasted for several hours.
For a more detailed description see J. Olcina 1994 (Riesgos climáticos en la Península Ibérica, Penthatlon) or F. Tullot 2000 (Climatología de España y Portugal, U. Salamanca)

Spain02_1982Oct19.jpg

19th October 1982 [View image] description: A particular meteorological situation took place between 20th and 21st Octubre 1982 over the Júcar river basin. A cut off low situation became independent from the basic westerly current, remaining nearly stationary for days. The warm air with high moisture content at lower tropospheric levels yielded torrential rain in the area achieving values around 400 mm in 24 hours. As a result, severe flooding took place all along the Júcar river basin, being further complicated by the Tous Dam failure.
For a more detailed description see F. Alcrudo and J. Mulet 2007 (Description of the Tous dam break case study, J . of Hydraulic Res. 45: 45-57), F. Garcia 1982 (Situación atmosférica causante de lluvias torrenciales
durante los días 19 al 21 de octubre de 1982 en el Levante español
, INM) or J. Olcina 1994 (Riesgos climáticos en la Península Ibérica, Penthatlon).

25th August 1983 [View image] description: The synoptic maps show for those days an stable anticyclonic situation located over the Iberian Peninsula with high surface temperatures over the Cantabrian coast. In addition, cold air was present at higher levels. This situation was intensified by northern winds forcing humid air mass to penetrate inland. The orography of the Basque country played an important role on the generation of severe thunderstorms which gave rise to considerable damage by flooding in August 1983 over the Cantabrian region and mainly the Basque country. The Nervión river flooded large areas. In particular, the water level reached a height of 2.10 metres in Bilbao causing significant damages.
For a more detailed description see J.J. Capel 1983 (El clima de la España Cantábrica: las inundaciones de 1983 en el País Vasco, Cantabria y Navarra, Almería : La Crónica del Sur) or J. Olcina 1994 (Riesgos climáticos en la Península Ibérica, Penthatlon).

2nd October 1984 [View image] description: This meteorological situation correspond to a depression which was previously a tropical cyclon called Hortensia originated in the tropical Atlantic. As in other similar cases, Hortensia was absorbed by the circulation of the westerlies in the temperate zone and converted into undulating depressions in the Polar Front. This situation yielded strong winds and heavy rainfall in Galicia.
For a more detailed description see J.J. Capel 1988 (Las perturbaciones tropicales en el Atlántico Norte y su incidencia en Europa occidental, Papeles de Geografía 14: 9-33) or R. Rodríguez et al 2000 (Las inundaciones recientes en Galicia, Serie Geográfica 9: 187-210).

15th October 1987[View image] description: A fast moving vigorous depression crossed England from south-west to north-east during the night of 15/16 October 1987 affecting the meteorological situation at the Northwest of Spain. Cold air from high latitudes was rapidly streaming south to the coast of Portugal. At the same time, very warm and moist air from the Canary Islands was quickly advected over Spain triggered heavy precipitation over Galicia.
For a more detailed description see S. D. Burt y D. A Mansfield 1988 (The great storm of 15-16 October 1987, Weather 43: 90-114)